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On the tenth of this month, let every man take a lamb for a father's house,
a lamb for a household,
in proportion to the persons, each man according to what he eats
shall take his portion of the lamb.
According to what he eats - ['He' refers to one] who is able to eat. This excludes the sick and the aged who are not able to eat [food the size of] an olive.
(Mechiltah and Rashi ibid. ibid.)
And should a household be too
small to have a lamb - This is to say that if the members of the household
are too few to warrant an entire lamb which they cannot eat and then will
transgress the sin of leaving over, it must take together with its neighbor.
- In four places does the Torah express concern for the property of
takes pity on you in advance and says that if the household is too small to eat a whole lamb, let it take one together with a neighbor lest one suffer pecuniary loss. The second place is where the Torah permits the use of forbidden fat of a carcass and the fat of a treyfa (killed by non-ritual means) for work purposes although you may not eat of it (Vayikra7:24). The third concerns a carcass (Devarim 14:21) "To the sojourner within your gates you may give it that he may eat it, or sell it to a foreigner". The fourth instance is that of a contaminated house, as is written (Vayikra 14:36) "And the priest shall charge that they clear the house" for should the colored clothes be laundered they will lose color and value. And similarly with earthen vessels - if they become impure there is no purification other than breaking them, therefore the Torah took pity and commanded to empty the house.
(Rabeinu Bechayey, ibid. ibid.)
On renewal and deafness
The Maftir reading for this Shabbat is that of Parashat HaChodesh (Shemot 12:1-20). It is reasonable to assume that during the Mishnaic period, the custom of Eretz Yisrael was observed, and on the Shabbat when the prayer for the month of Nissan is recited, this portion alone was read. The Mishnah states:
If Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on the Shabbat, we read the portion of Shekalim. If it falls in the middle of the week, it is read on the Shabbat before, and on the next Shabbat there is a break. On the second [of the special Shabbatot], [we read] Parashat Zachor (Remember Amelek), on the third, Para Aduma (Red Heifer), on the fourth, "This month is for you". On the fifth, the regular order is resumed. (Megilla 3:5)
month is for you" is the first law imposed upon the Children of
Israel.Were it not for the need to teach the basic principle that "The
earth and all that is therein is the Lord's" (see Rashi's commentary on
Bereishit 1:1), the Torah could have begun with this commandment. It is the
commandment of "Sanctification of the Month", the commandment that
establishes the calendar and festivals for us. The dates and festivals are
essential to public and social life. This parasha also marks the
beginning of the salvation from
The Torah reading, as with every reading, is a dialogue between reader and text. It meets the reader in various situations, and therefore it is interesting to note what happened to one of our great sages, Rabbi Elazar ben Arach, Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai's prize student. The story appears in Tractate Avot - Pirkei Avot, Ethics of the Fathers:
Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai had five students, as follows: Rabbi Eliezer ben Horkanos, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Hananya, Rabbi Yosi HaCohen, Rabbi Shimom ben Netanel, and Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh. He used to recite their fine attributes:
Rabbi Eliezer ben Hokanos is a lined reservoir which does not lose a single drop. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Hananya - fortunate is the woman gave birth to him. Rabbi Yosi HaCohen, a hassid. Rabbi Shimon ben Netanel, sin-fearing, And Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, An overflowing fountain.
He was wont
to say: "If all the wise men of
The Talmud tells of Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh:
R. Eleazar ben
Arakh visited that place [Diomsith and Perugitha - towns in northern
Other, more developed, versions of this story are to be found, but from the Bavli story, one can imagine a situation in which, following the death of his illustrious teacher, R' Elazar ben Arakh left the other scholars for more pleasant and satisfying environs with baths and vineyards. The price for his secession was that he forgot his studies. Upon his return to his scholar colleagues, probably on the Shabbat on which our parasha was read, or perhaps even on Parashat HaChodesh, he was honored with reading from the Torah, and he erred in identifying certain words of the parasha. One can assume that even a child who had learned to read would not make such gross errors, and we presume that it was not the Talmud's intent to inform us of a decline in R' Elazar's sight.
Maharsha detects significance beyond R' Elazars's simple misreading of similar letters (daled-resh; kaf-bet) and his confusion of vowels that so changed the meaning of the passage:
His mistake was related to his person, for his heart became a heart of stone, deaf to understanding, previously having been as an overflowing fountain while in the company of the Sages.
The Abot d'Rebbi Natan's version of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai's description of R' Elazar ben Arakh is richer than the Bavli's account. A bareyta reads:
And he called Elazar ben Arakh a rushing stream and a flowing spring, whose waters grow stronger and overflow, thus realizing that which is written (Mishlei 5:15): "Your springs will gush forth in streams in the public squares."
He is not only a "rushing spring", something which may symbolize exceptional creativity, or extraordinary intellectual capacity (as is explained by Rambam in his commentary on the Mishnah), but also symbolizes one whose waters overflow - he fertilizes his surrounding and contributes of his wisdom and abilities to society.
heaped upon R' Elazar ben Arakh by his teacher, as per "Avot d'Rebbi
Natan", match those familiar to us from the Mishnah ("If all the wise
of the balance, and Elazar ben Arakh in the other, he would outweigh them all"); He was the only disciple able to comfort his teacher upon his son's death (Avot d'Rebbi Natan 14).
The story about his separating from his companions and going to Porgitha-Diomsith following the death of his teacher is paradoxical and especially tragic.
The short versions of our story in the Bavli and in Avot d'Rebbi Natan do not provide us with motivation for R' Elazar's cutting himself off from his society. Kohellet Rabba and Yalkut Shimoni assume that he "went to his wife" and that it was his wife who enticed him to remain in these places for an extended period. As is known, this is not the only instance in which a woman is presented as the enticing and instigating factor, but there is no need to assume that R' Elazar's wife was the 'guilty' party in our story.
In Avot d'Rebbi Natan, apparently the oldest source for our story, this incident is attached to the story of the comforting of R' Yochanan ben Zakkai and his being led to the bath house.
Could it be that Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkei's praise for R' Elazar instilled a kind of conceit and egocentricism? Was this egotism responsible for R' Elazar's withdrawal into his four cubits, convinced that, having nothing to learn from others, he no longer needed chavruta (learning companions)? Perhaps in contrast to Rabbi Eliezer the Great - who was ostracized despite his desire to influence his colleagues - whose "colleagues separated from him" (as reported by Rabbi Akiva in Baba Metsiah 59b), he, R' Elazar, cut himself off from his colleagues.
As said above, the Bavli does not reveal the reason behind R' Elazar's travels to those locations, but rather focuses on the strength of the "la dolche vita's" attractions even for the greatest of sages. Pleasure has tremendous power, and no one is immune.
It seems to me that it is possible to widen the deep insight of the Maharsha which detected a connection between R' Elazar's sojourn in Diomsith and his erroneous reading of "this month is for you".
For various reasons - perhaps out of pride and superciliousness, perhaps because of his difficulty at observing his teacher in mourning, perhaps because of the magnetic pull of the world's delights, or perhaps of reasons unknown to us - R' Elazar felt that his place was not in the Beit Midrash, the Hall of Study, that he had no contribution to make and also that his motivation to give had dwindled. Therefore, he "escaped" from social and educational involvement, and focused upon himself. He did not realize that he had thereby foregone his spiritual growth and even begun to deteriorate.
Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that there no possibility of real spiritual growth without social involvement.
It would seem that that is no chance for geula - salvation, when, in the words of the Maharsha, the heart "is too deaf to understand".
This insight may have practical ramifications for our own generation. We have an opportunity for geula, freedom, revitalization and growth on many different planes, on person, social and national levels. This opportunity is dependent upon our ability to open our hearts to the distress of our surrounding society, on our involvement in the creation of more just society and on our striving for peace. Withdrawal to our own four cubits causes us to "make our hearts deaf", and stymies opportunities for growth, renewal, and geula on all planes. We must choose between histcharshut (becoming deaf) and hitchadshut (renewal).
Inasmuch as "a prisoner cannot free himself from prison", R' Elazar ben Arakh needs sages who are socially involved, who evince concern, to plead mercy for him, so that he may again open up to study and rejuvenation. Does there exist today leadership that can assist us in our constant struggle against deafness of the heart, and that can advance study, development and renewal?
1. A misreading of two consonants and four vowels changed the meaning of the text.
Pinchas Leiser, editor of Shabbat Shalom, is a psychologist.
The Miracle of Creation of the Fetus in Its Mother's Womb
Rabbi Levi said: It is customary in the world that if a man deposits a purse of silver with his friend in secret and he returns to him a pound of gold in public, is he not thankful? So with the Holy One, Blessed Be He, people deposit a drop of semen in secret and the Holy One, Blessed Be He, returns them complete praiseworthy souls in public, is this not praiseworthy. This is [what is written] (Job 36) "I will make my opinions widely known; I will justify my Maker."
In a different midrash, Rabbi Levi said: "It is customary in the world that if a man is incarcerated in prison, no one pays attention to him. But if another comes and lights a candle for him, is he not thankful? So with the Holy One, Blessed Be He, - The fetus lies in his mother's womb and He lights a candle for him, and this is what Job referred to (Job 29): "When His lamp shone over my head" - is this not praiseworthy? It is "I will justify my Maker."
Rabbi Levi said in yet another midrash: It is customary in the world that if one is incarcerated in prison and no one pays attention to him, and if someone comes and frees him, is he not thankful? So it is with the fetus in his mother's womb, the Holy One, Blessed Be He, frees his and brings him out.
(Vayikra Rabba Parasha 14)
"And should a man's hair fall out, his is bald on the pate, he is clean" …"The man is leprous; he is unclean" …"He shall be unclean as long as the disease is on him".
(Vayikra 13: 40,44,46).
On the basis of this, they said: If the unclean man sits beneath the tree and the clean man stands, the clean man becomes unclean. If the clean man sits under the tree and the unclean man stands, the clean man remains clean.
"And he shall cry out, "Unclean! Unclean!" - He shall call out in a loud voice to persons coming near "I am unclean, I am unclean - keep away from me" because the mourner, too, covers his head - as the Rambam,, bringing proof from Unkolos' translation on this passage ruled (Laws of Mourning, 5:19) - thus all will know that he is unclean, not a mourner.
(Rabbi Yitchak Shmuel Reggio, 13:45)
All agree that leprosy is a punishment for slander. The disease begins in the walls of the houses (Lev. xiv. 33, seq.). If the sinner repents, the object is attained: if he remains in his disobedience, the disease affects his bed and house furniture: if he still continues to sin, the leprosy attacks his own garments, and then his body. This is a miracle received in our nation by tradition, in the same manner as the effect of the trial of a faithless wife (Num. v. ii, seq.). The good effect of this belief is evident. Leprosy is besides a contagious disease, and people almost naturally abhor it, and keep away from it. The purification was effected by cedar-wood, hyssop, scarlet thread, and two birds (Lev. xiv. 4); their reason is stated in various Midrashic sayings, but the explanation does not agree with our theory. I do not know at present the reason of any of these things; nor why cedar-wood, hyssop, and scarlet were used in the sacrifice of the red heifer (Num. xix. 6); nor why a bundle of hyssop was commanded for the sprinkling of the blood of the Passover-lamb (Exod. xii. 22). I cannot find any principle upon which to found an explanation why these particular things have been chosen.
(Rambam: Guide for the Perplexed III 47 - Trans. M. Friedlander)
Cedar and Hyssop - Pride and Humility
Because infections are brought about by arrogance, how can he be treated and cured? Let him humble himself as worm (English translations are either 'scarlet' or 'crimson'. The dye used in creating the red yarn was made from the blood of a worm.) and hyssop.
As Worm and Hyssop
The Hassidic master of Gur, author of "S'fat Emet", was wont to say: Why was he to bring also "cedar wood" that is symbolic of pride? If the intention was primarily that he humble himself like a hyssop, would it not have sufficed to bring the hyssop alone?
However, when the sinner repents and considers the sins which he committed, he becomes low of spirit and deeply ashamed because of his earlier pride. He is ashamed and humiliated because he was prideful while he sinned. His earlier pride, then, was instrumental in attaining his current humility. Therefore "the cedar" justly has a part in the cure.
(Sfat Emet as quoted in Ma'ayana shel Torah)
Humility and submission do not require that the body be bent and hunched, but rather that he experience inner spiritual distress even as his body stands straight, as the Baal Shem Tov explained: "Every stature shall bow down before You" - to bow down before you even with a straight stature.
When one humbles himself like a hyssop, when actually there is only false humility, this person also is in need of atonement.
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